高一英语语法?动名词



高一英语语法?动名词 ( The Gerund) 英语语法? )
I. 动名词的主动 / 被动 / 否定形式 主动形式 被动形式 being done 一般式 doing having done having been done 完成式 否定形式 not doing not having done
II. 动名词的作用
  1. 起名词的作用,在句中作主语、宾语、表语、定语等。
  2. 具有动词的特征,如有完成式和被动语态,可以有自己的宾语和状语。动名词+宾语或 状语构成动名词短语 动名词短语。 动名词短语 III. 动名词的用法
  1. 作主语
  1) 置于主语的位置 Reading aloud is very important in learning a foreign language.
  2) 用 it 作形式主语,将动名词结构置于句末。这种形式通常用于某些名词和形容词之后。 作形式主语,将动名词结构置于句末。这种形式通常用于某些名词和形容词之后。 It is no good pretending to know what you don’t know. It’s no use / useless thinking about it now. It’s a waste of time talking with him. It is worth repairing the car. It is very difficult getting everything ready in time. It will be very nice seeing them again. [注意 important, necessary 等形容词不适用于上述结构。 注意] 注意 It is important learning foreign languages. (×) It is important to learn foreign languages. (√)
  2. 作表语 ? 表示主语的内容 The real problem is knowing what to write. Your work is bringing the chairs downstairs. [注意 注意] 注意
  1) 动名词和不定式作表语和主语时的区别 (
  1) 一般说来可以互换,其意义没有多大差别。 It is dangerous playing (to play) with fire. What she likes is watching (to watch) the children play. 但有时意义上有区别: 动名词:表示抽象的一般或泛指的动作。 不定式:表示具体某次动作,特别是将来的动作。 ① My job is teaching English. (泛指的行为,表示职业) My job is to teach them to read the text. (表示一次具体的任务) ② Lying is wrong. (泛指这种做法,这种作风) To lie is wrong. (对于执行者是谁,心中是有所指的) (
  2) 作表语时,如果动作十分抽象,已失去动词性能而接近名词,则用动名词。 My favorite winter sport is skating. (not: to skate). (
  3) 主语如是动名词,则表语也应用动名词;主语如是不定式,则表语也应用不定式。 Seeing is believing. (or: To see is to believe)
  2) 动名词作表语时不可与进行时相混淆。 动名词作表语时不可与进行时相混淆。 She was washing clothes. (过去进行时) Her job was washing clothes. (动名词)
  3. 作定语 ? 表示所修饰的名词的性能或用途等
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drinking water (= water for drinking) a swimming pool a walking stick a washing machine a writing desk a printing machine
  4. 作动词或介词的宾语 作动词或介词的宾语
  1) 在下列动词 / 词组 后只能用动名词作宾语: 后只能用动名词作宾语: finish enjoy mind practise consider(考虑) dislike excuse understand avoid (避免) miss (错过……的机会,差点没) delay (耽搁,推迟) admit (承认) suggest(建议)escape(逃 脱,躲避) imagine advise save (节省,免去) appreciate (感谢,感激) resist (禁不住要) risk (冒……的危险) keep (on) give up stop /prevent / keep…from feel like put off (推迟) deny (否认) discontinue(中断、停止), carry on(继续) , burst out (突然…起来) I appreciate your giving me so much help. When she got to the place, she couldn’t resist going in You mustn’t risk getting caught in a storm. She missed going to the meeting on Saturday. It will save (me) going to town. We decided to delay (going on) our holidays until next month. If the illness might be serious, you mustn’t put off going to the doctor. Did he admit(to) breaking the window? There is no way to escape doing the work. [注意 有时 注意] 注意 有时也可用 it 作形式宾语代替动名词。 I think it no use (useless) arguing with him. Do you consider it any good trying again?
  2) 在动词 like, love, hate, prefer 等后可用动名词或不定式作宾语。 等后可用动名词或不定式作宾语。 用不定式表示特定或具体的某次行动;而动名词表示一般的倾向/ 经常性习惯性的动作。I like swimming but I don’t like to swim today. 但实际语言环境中很少去注意这种差别。 Do you like playing (or: to play) chess? [注意 在 would like (love, hate, prefer) 后要用不定式。 注意] 注意 I’d like to buy a suit. Would you like to join us?
  3) 在 attempt (试图,企图 ,intend(打算 ,continue 之后,用不定式或动名词意思上的差别很 试图, 打算), 之后, 试图 企图), 打算 小,但是,在 attempt 和 intend 之后,动词不定式可能更为常见。 What do you intend to do? I intend coming (to come) back soon. She attempted to get in touch with her lost son. I attempted walking until I fell over
  4) can’t stand/bear (无法忍受 无法忍受) 无法忍受 cannot bear 后接 doing 或-ing 在意思没什么区别: I can’t bear seeing / to see food thrown away. cannot stand 后通常接 doing, 但也有人认为 I won’t stand them interrupting me all the time. She can't stand to hear them arguing. (Longman)
  5) 在下列动词后面,使用不定式与动名词有着明显的语义差别。 在下列动词后面,使用不定式与动名词有着明显的语义差别。 regret (遗憾,后悔)doing 对已发生的事表示后悔。 regret to do -- -对现在要发生的事表示抱歉,遗憾。 I regretted agreeing to attend the meeting. 我后悔同意出席会议。 I regret to say I cannot go with you. 我很遗憾地说我不能陪你去。 remember doing 记得做过某事(回忆过去做过的一件事) remember to do 记着去做某事(记住/别忘记要做的一件事)
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I remember posting the letter. 我记得我把信发出了。 Please remember to post the letter for me. 请记住替我发信。 forget doing 忘了做过某事 (动作已经发生) forget to do 忘了去做某事 (这事没有做) I shall never forget hearing her singing that song. 我再也不会忘记听她唱那支歌的情景 I have forgotten to bring my umbrella. 我忘了带伞。 try doing 试试某种方法,或做某件事试一试。 try to do 设法去做一件事请 Let’s try doing the work some other way. 我们用另外一个方法做这工作试试。 We must try to get everything done in time. 我们必须设法及时把一切搞好。 mean doing 意味着,意思是 mean to do 打算,想要做某事 This means setting out at once. 这就是说立即出发。 I didn’t mean to hurt your feelings. 我并没有想要伤害你的感情。 want doing 需要 want to do 想要 The house wants (=needs / requires) repairing. She doesn’t want to come. stop doing 停止做谋事 stop to do 停下一件事去做另一件事 (不定式作目的状语) They stopped taking. 他们停止了讲话。 They stopped to talk. 他们停下来,谈起话来。 can’t help doing 禁不住 can’t help (to) do 不能帮助做 They couldn’t help jumping up at the news. 听到这消息他们忍不住跳了起来。 Sorry I have lots of work to do. So I can’t help to make up the room for you. 抱歉我有很多事要做。我无法帮你布置房间。 go on doing 继续做同一件事 go on to do 接着做另一件事 He went on to talk about world situation. We’ll go on fighting so long as there is oppression in the world. be afraid of doing 害怕发生某种后果 be afraid to do 不敢做某事 She is afraid of falling behind the others. The enemy was afraid to enter the liberated area. (解放区) 但两者意思上常没有多少区别 I am afraid to tell (=of telling) him. I am afraid of flying (= to fly). 我害怕坐飞机。
  6) 在动词 start, begin, continue 后动名词与不定式的用法 (
  1) 当 start, begin, continue 等是进行式时,后接不定式。 The students are starting to work on the difficult maths problem. (
  2) 当 start, begin, continue 与 understand, see, wonder, realize know believe 等表示心理状态或精 神活动的动词时,后接不定式。 I began to realise I had been wrong. I soon began to understand what was happening. (
  3) 当主语是物(而不是人)时,start, begin 后要用不定式。 The ice began to melt (融化).
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(
  4) 有意识地“开始做某事” start, begin 后多用动名词; 动作自动或突然开始多用不定式。 , We started working on it in 19
  98. Suddenly it began to rain.
  7) 作介词宾语 作介词宾语: You must check your homework before handing it in. Since returning from Xi’an, he has been very busy. After joining the Party, was headmaster for many years. On hearing the news, they jumped up and down with great joy. (= When they heard the news, they jumped up and down with great joy. Laws have been passed to stop / prevent factories (from) sending out poisonous gases and polluted water. You cannot enter the staff room without being permitted. (=without permission) Thank you for giving us so much help. There is no use (in) talking about it. 讨论这事是没有用/好处的。 They wasted a lot of time (in/on ) discussing the things that have no importance. He spent the whole afternoon (in) washing the windows and floors. She is busy (in) writing letters. There was some difficulty (in) explaining this to him. [注意 短语 look forward to (盼望,希望), be / get used to, get down to, pay attention to, 注意] 注意 prefer…to…,go back to, be accustomed to (习惯于), devote…to…等中的 to 是介词 介词,其后应接动 介词 动 名词。 名词 I am looking forward to seeing her. IV. 动名词的时态
  1. 动名词的一般式 动名词的一般式所表示的动作可以是泛指, 也可与谓语动词同时发生, 或发生在谓语动作之 前、之后。 We are interested in collecting stamps. (泛指) We also enjoy watching cartoon films. (同时) The boy insisted on joining the army. (之后) Excuse me for coming late. (之前)
  2. 动名词的完成式 动名词的完成式表示动作发生在谓语动词表示的动作之前。 He denied (不承认) having broken the glass. = He denied that he had broken the glass. The Department of Education gave him a medal for having completed 60 years of teaching. Having done the work is an experience you’ll never forget. 干过这工作,就会使你永生难忘。 [注意 注意] 注意
  1)在某些动词(remember, forget, regret)后(或成语中) 常用或可以用动名词的一般式,尽 , 管动作是在谓语所表示的动作之前发生的。 I don’t remember ever seeing (=having seen) him anywhere. She regretted missing (= having missed) the film He apologized (道歉) for interrupting us.
  2) 在表示明确的时间概念的介词(on, after, before)后,可以用一般式。[例子见
  5)作介词宾 ) 语] V. 动名词的被动式 动名词的被动式
  1. 当动名词逻辑上的主语所表示的是这动作的对象时,这时动名词一般要用被动形式 被动形式。 被动形式 动名词的被动式有一般式与完成式 一般式与完成式。 一般式与完成式 He doesn’t mind being made fun of. They don’t like being told what to do.
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The young man came in without being noticed. He was angry at having been called out at night.
  2. 动名词的主动形式表示被动的意思 动名词的主动形式表示被动的意思 在动词 need (需要),want (需要), require (需要), deserve (值得, 应当)等后,以及 to be worth 的短语中,尽管表示的是被动的意思,却用动名词的主动形式。 My pen needs filling. = My pen needs to be filled The problem requires studying with great care. = The problem requires to be studied with great care The picture is worth looking at. = It is worth looking at the picture.= The picture is worthy to be looked at The room needs / wants / requires cleaning = The room needs to be cleaned. VI. 动名词的否定形式 The girl made her mother angry by not taking her medicine. I regret not having seen the flower show. = I regret that I have not seen the flower show. VII. 动名词的复合结构 在有的句子里,主语不是动名词的逻辑主语,而这个动名词又必须有主语,意思才能够表 达出来。 在这种情况下, 就要用动名词的复合结构。 动名词的复合结构是由 “物主代词 物主代词(his, her, 物主代词 your etc.) 或名词所有格 (Tom’s etc.) + doing” 构成,在句中作主语、宾语、表语等。 Do you mind my smoking? = Do you mind if I smoke? The student’s knowing English helped him in learning French. Do you think there will be any chance of my seeing him again? What’s troubling him is their not having enough money. Her husband’s being sick made things all the more difficult for her. [注意 注意] 注意
  1. 在口语或非正式英语中,这种结构如不在句首时,常用人称代词宾格代替物主代词,用名词 普通格代替所有格。 They don’t like me coming here. I remember Wang Fei going there. All she wanted was her son being given the job.
  2. 如果动名词逻辑上的主语是无生命的东西,就只能用普通格,不能
 

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