[高中英语旧教材讲解]Unit 12 Fact and fantasy



Unit 12 Fact and fantasy

  1. league n. (
  1) (
  2) 里格,是旧时长度单位,约为 3 英里或 5 千米 同盟,团队
eg. Are they League members?他们是团员吗? A League member should be an example for the youth to follow. (
  3) 习语:in league with “暗中合谋,同……暗中勾结”
The police suspected that the bank clerk was in league with the robbers. 警察怀疑银行职员与强盗暗中勾结。
  2. fiction (
  1) n. 作“小说”意思,为不可数名词
eg. Fact/ Truth is stranger than fiction. (谚)事实奇于小说。 He writes fiction. 他是写小说的。 辨析:fable 指借助动物、植物、物品等形象或对话说明某一哲 理的寓言,通常寓意在结尾点明。 fiction 包括的范围较广,可指短篇、中篇、长篇小说或传奇故 事。 This is a bable about a fox.这是一个关于狐狸的寓言。 He prefers light fiction to serious novels.比起严肃小说来,他更
喜欢轻松的小说。 (
  2) n. 作“虚构之事,想像” ,是可数名词
eg. His testimony was a complete fiction. 他的证言全是虚构的。 (
  3) adj. fictional, 虚构的,编造的
He wrote a fictional account of a journey to the moon.
  3. hunter (
  1) n. 意思为“猎人”可数名词
a famous hunter 一位著名的猎手。 (
  2) vt. hunt 意思为“打猎,搜索” hunt for sb./sth 搜索某
人/某物 Millions of people hunt and fish for a living.成百万人以打猎和捕 鱼为生。 The men were hunting an elephant.人们正在追捕一头象。 I spend the summer and fall hunting for a job. (
  3) 习语 hunt for 寻找 hunt high and low for
到处寻找 hunt down/ out / up 搜索,追捕到 猎
  4. collision n. (
  1) 撞击,collision with sb/ sth 猛撞某人/某物 go hunting 去狩
His car had a collision with a truck.他的车子与货车相撞。 (
  2) 不一致 We have no principle collision. 我们没有原则上
的冲突。 (
  3) come into collision with(与……)冲突,抵触,对立
The workers came into collision with the manager.工人们与经理发 生了冲突。 (
  4) v. collide 与……冲突,碰撞,常与 with 搭配
The two planes collided with each other in midair. The president collided with the Congress over his budget plans. 总统就预算问题与国会发生了冲突。 (
  5) 辨析:
collide 指互相剧烈地撞在一起。He collides with a drunkard at the corner of the street. bump 指头部或其他物品碰了某物。 bumped his head against the He wall. clash 指因为不一致或不协调而导致冲突。 Your views clashed with mine. crash 指突然猛烈地撞击或坠下而破碎。The airplane crashed on a hillside.
  6. voyage (
  1) n. 航海,航行,指长途的乘船的旅行。
He made a voyage to Japan. I wish you a happy voyage. The voyage from England to India used to take 6 months.
(
  2)
v. 航海,航行于某地,是正式文体的用法
They are voyaging across the Indian Ocean.他们正在作穿越印度洋 的航行。 (
  3) (
  4) n. voyager, 航海家,海上探险者 a long voyage 一次长的航行 in the course of voyage
go on a voyage 航海 set out on a voyage 出发航行
  7. aboard (
  1)
from a voyage 航行归来
prep. 在船上(飞机、火车上等) ,其后直接跟交通工具。
eg. We are aboard the train. The passengers are all aboard the ship. They went aboard the ship. (
  2) adv. 上了船,上了飞机 The captain went aboard.
All aboard! 要开船了,大家上船!
  8. prisoner (
  1) (
  2) n. 囚犯 prison n. 监狱,监禁
The thief was sent to prison for one year. 这名小偷被监禁一年。 Many people believe that prison isn’t a cure for crime. 许多人认为监禁解决不了犯罪问题。
  9. gentle adj. (
  1) 慷慨的,温厚的,友好的
The nurses are very gentle.护士们待人温和亲切。 Mothers are gentle with their babies.母亲对婴儿总是温柔体贴的。 She has a gentle heart.她有一颗善良(或温柔)的心。 (
  2) 轻柔的,柔和的
The boy has a gentle spirit. The gentle breezes rustled through the leaves. (
  3) 微笑 a gentle slope 不那么陡的坡,缓坡 a gentle voice 柔和的声音 gentle manners 文雅的举止 a gentle smile 柔和的
a gentle tap on the shoulder 在肩上轻轻地拍了一下
  10. phenomena (
  1) 现象,通常指不寻常或具科学性的现象。这是复数形式,
其单数形式是 phenomenon. A rainbow is a natural phenomenon.彩虹是自然现象。 (
  2) 童
  11. labour (
  1)n.劳动,不可数 Labour creates the world.劳动创造世界 It is necessary for us to take part in physical labour. (
  2)n. 劳工,工人,不可数 We must have extra labour for the post at Christmas. Labour favours a seven hour day. phenomenon 在口语中指非凡之人 a child phenomenon 神
(
  3)
v. 劳动,工作,苦干,努力
They laboured for the happiness of mankind. They laboured for two days to build a shelter. (
  4) v. 步履艰难 She laboured up the steps with her two bags.
He laboured up the hill. 他吃力地爬上山去。 辨析:labour 脑力劳动。 They earth their living by manual labour. 他们靠体力劳动来维 持生计。 hard labour 艰苦劳动 His new book is the product of some three years’ labour. job 是可数名词,常指具体的某一个工作,它即可指固定工作, 也可指临时性工作,常与“失业”相对应。job 还可用于对一件 事情表示褒贬。 You did a good job. He got a part-time job as a salesman. work 是不可数名词,常与“休息”相对应。Work 含义较广, 既可指体力劳动、脑力劳动,又可指机器与自然力所做的工作; 既可指长期的工作,也可指短期的工作。 I have a lot of work to do this evening. Computers do much of the office work formerly(从前)done by man. 多指艰苦的、紧张的、劳累的体力劳动,也可指
It takes a lot of work to make a channel under the sea. (
  5)习语: labour and capital 劳资 manual labour 体力劳动 labour union 工会 labour reform 劳动改造 labour discipline 劳动纪律 Labour Party 工党 Labour Day 劳动节 labour trouble 劳资纠纷
labour under 受苦,受……影响 the hardest mental labour 最艰 苦的脑力劳动 labour service company 劳动服务公司
  12. hesitate (
  1) v. 犹豫,踌躇 hesitate at/ about/ over sth.
Andrew hesitated before he took the last cake. If you hesitate too much, you’ll lose the game. He hesitates at nothing. He’s still hesitates about joining/over whether to join the expedition. (
  2) v. 不愿, 不欲, 常与 to 搭配 I hesitate to take the risk. I always hesitate to advise my friends on what to read. (
  3)怕麻烦别人 If you have any questions, don’t hesitate to ask me. n. hesitation 犹豫,踌躇 hesitate to do sth 不愿做某事
I had no hesitation in telling the truth. She agreed without the slightest hesitation. His frequent hesitations annoyed the audience.
  13. grave (
  1)n. 墓穴、坟墓 Is there life beyond the grave?
(
  2) adj. 重大的,严重的 I made a grave mistake.我犯了一个严重的错误。 This is grave news. (
  3) look grave 面孔严肃 后果 a grave situation 严重的局势 的话 from the cradle to the grave 从生到死 死不瞑目 dig one’s own grave 自掘坟墓 声的
  14. foundation (
  1) n. [U] 建立,创立,创办 silent as the grave 寂静无 turn in one’s grave grave words 语重心长 a grave consequence 严重
He devoted all his energy to the foundation of the university. (
  2) n. [C, U](作为某事的)基本原则,思想或事实;基础
This success laid the foundation of his career. * foundation course 基础课 foundation-stone 奠基石
found v. 建立,创立 者
  15. overboard
founder n. 建立者, 缔造
(
  1)adv. 从船上落(或抛)入水中,在船外 They were thrown overboard when they were on the sea. The sailor jumped overboard into the sea. (
  2)go overboard (about sb./sth.)对(某人/某事)极感兴趣或过分 感兴趣 He goes overboard about every young woman he meets. (
  3)Throw sth./sb. overboard 抛弃某事物,除掉或不再支持某人 After heavily losing the election, the party threw their leader overboard. 辨析:aboard adv. 在船(飞机、车)上;上船(飞机、车) board vt.上车,上船 on board 在船(车等)上,上船(车等) abroad adv. 在国外,到国外
  16. apply (
  1) 申请;使/应/运用
I have made up my mind to apply for a scholarship. Scientific discoveries are often applied to industrial processes. (
  2) 涂,贴用;适用;与……直接有关
Apply the paint evenly to both sides of the door.
He examined the cut and applied a plaster. The questions in the second half of the form apply only to married men. (
  3) apply oneself to 致力于,专心于
He has a lot of talent, but he won’t apply himself. You will only pass your exams if you really apply yourself to your work. (
  4) adj. applied 应用的,实用的
  17. companion (
  1)n. [C]同/伙伴,伴侣 My fellow prisoners were good companions. A dog is a faithful companion. (
  2) 受雇陪伴老人或病人者;成对/双物之一 She was acting as a companion to the old lady. The companion volume will soon be published. adj. companionable 友好的, 好交际的 朋友或伴侣的关系
  18. dislike (
  1) vt. 不喜爱, 厌恶, 该词不能用于进行时态, 其后常接名词、 n. companionship 友谊,
代词或动名词作宾语。 Why do you dislike her so much? I dislike having to get up early.
(
  2)
n. [C,U] 厌恶,讨厌,反感
She took an immediate dislike to him. We all have our likes and dislikes.
  19. in public 公开地,当众 反义词 in private
He repeated in public what he had said in private. She was appearing in public for the first time since her illness. in the public eye 广为人知的
  20. throw light on 使……清楚起来, 提供线索, 也可以表达为 cast light on,或 shed light on. Recent research has thrown new light on the causes of the disease. The new facts throw some light on the matter. Let Mrs. Danvers read the note. She may be able to throw light on it.
  21. brilliant adj.光亮的,光辉夺目的,灿烂的;聪颖的,技艺高 超的 The sun shone in a brilliant blue sky. I was a good student, above average, but not brilliant. He predicted a brilliant future for the child. adv. brilliantly n. brilliance 聪颖;鲜明,灿烂,光辉
Dorothy Sayers was a writer of tremendous brilliance. He acted brilliantly in a wide range of parts.
  22. set out 动身,出发;陈列,安排;陈/ 阐述
She set out at dawn. The brushes and paints had been set out. The gardens have been beautifully set out. Darwin set out his theory in detail in The Origin of Species’. * set out to do sth./ set about doing sth.开始/着手做…… We set out to paint the whole house./ We set about painting the whole house. She set out to break the world land speed record. *set off 与 set out 两词有时可互换,但有时是有区别的 (
  1)set off 出发,发射 The driver suggested that we should set off before seven in the morning in order to avoid traffic jam. The children gathered in the garden to set the fireworks off. (
  2) set out 出发;打算 The Chinese expedition set out for the North Pole yesterday. I set out to make the dress by myself, but in the end I had to ask for help.
  23. cut up 指用刀或其他工具把某物切成小块,切碎,剪碎;割 伤,挫伤某人。 He was badly cut up in the fight. 辨析: cut away (自某物上)切除;剪去;砍掉某物
They cut away all the branches from the tree. cut out 剪成,砍成,剪成或开辟出某事物;剪裁衣服;删除某 事物。 You can cut out the unimportant details. cut down 砍伤要害,自基础部分砍倒;减少数额,减少消耗; 砍价。 He was asking $400 for the car, but we cut him down to $3
  50.
  24. make a living 谋生,生存之道,生计,收入 He made a living as a journalist, by/from writing. They are making a good living. It is possible to make a very good living from modeling.

  1. the father of science fiction 科幻小说之父 fiction n. [U] & [C] 虚构的文学作品;小说;编造的谎话;虚 构;想象。 E.g. science fiction 科学小说,科学幻想故事 the writer of fiction 小说家 Fact [Truth] is stranger than fiction. [谚]事实比小说还离奇。
The account she gave of her movements is a complete fiction. 她对自己的行动所作的解释完全是虚构的。
  2. His father sent him to Paris to study law, but instead Verne developed his love for the theatre. develop love for:become more and more interested in develop a friendship with sb.: become friends with sb. gradually develop a mine 开矿 develop a film 冲洗胶卷
  3. He used the latest ideas and technical inventions of his day in his books. a.) latest: the most recent E.g. the latest fashion / news at (the) latest : 最迟 b.) sth. / sb. of one’s day E.g. Shakespeare topped all the other writers of his day.
  4. Many of the instruments in his novels will remind the reader of Dr Benjamin Franklin’s experiments with electricity. remind vt. Make sb. think of or remember
remind sb. of sth./ to do sth 使某人想起……提醒某人做某事 remind sb. that… 提醒某人……,警告某人…… E.g. The film reminded him of what he had seen in China. 这部影片使他回想起在中国所看到
 

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