高中英语语法



虚拟语气
虚拟语气在各种句式中的用法介绍如下: A).条件从句的虚拟语气 条件从句的谓语动词 与现在事实相反 与过去事实相反 与将来事实相反 bewere/ 动词过去式 would/ would/ would/
与事实相反,要用虚拟语气
虚拟语气表示说话人的愿望、假设、猜测或建议,而不表示客观存在的事实。虚拟语气通过谓语动词的特殊形式来表示,对
主句的谓语动词 should/ should/ should/ might/ might/ might/ could + do could + have done could + do
过去完成式 were to/ should + do/
动词过去式 Eg. 如果我是你,我就不看电视了. If I were you, I should/would not watch TV. 如果我做完家庭作业,我就去参加晚会. If I did/had done my homework, I would go/have gone to the party. 如果你昨天晚上不看电视,就不会迟到了. If you hadn’t gone to the cinema, you would not have been late for class. 如果你努力地学习的话,你就会考试及格了。 If you had studied harder, you would have passed the exam. The plants in our gardenbetter if it had not rained so much last year. A.had grown Note: a).条件从句中 if 的省略,要倒装 如果条件从句的谓语动词包含有 were 或助动词、情态动词 had,should,could,有时可将连词 if 省去,而将 条件从句的主语 置于 were,had,should,could 之后。这种用法主要用于书面语,如: a.与现在相反:If I were you (=Were I you) , I would go with him. b.与过去相反:If I had had time then (=Had I had time then), I would have gone with you. c.与将来相反: I were to visit/should visit/visited the Great Wall tomorrow, (=Were I to /Should I visit the Great Wall tomorrow), I would If take my son with me. 注意:在否定句中 not 不可提至主语前,如: (误)Weren’t I here now, I would be in the bus. (正)Were I not here now, I would be in the bus. b).without 可以代替条件从句 Eg.没有水和空气,我们就不能生存。 We would not live without water or air. c) 混合虚拟条件句 如果条件从句的动作和主句的动作不是同时发生,主句和从句的谓语动词的形式应分别根据各自所表示的 时间加以调整。 这种句子叫做混合虚拟条件句。如: If he had followed my advice,he would be quite all rightnow.(从句述说过去,主句述说现在) If China had not been liberated,the working people wouldstill be leading a miserable life.( 从句表示与过去的事实相反,主句说明 与现在的事实相反) d) 省略主句,只保留 if(only)的条件句 虚拟条件句中的表示结果的主句有时形式上可以省略,但意义仍然存在。这 种句子只保留一个 if(only)条 件从句,表达说话人的强烈愿望。如:If(only)she were my sister!她是我的妹妹就好了! e) 用 but 或 but for 引导含蓄条件句(but 后跟从句,but for 后跟短语: 假如没有, 要不是)
1
B.would have grown
C.were growing
D.would grow
But for your help,our experiment wouldn’t have been sosuccessful. 假如没有你们的帮助,我们的实验是不会如此成功的。 But for the storm,we should have arrived earlier. 要不是碰到暴雨我们会到得早一些。 We would have invited them to the dance,but they were too busy. 要不是他们太忙,我们会邀请他们来参加舞会的。 此句可改写为:If they had not been so busy,we would haveinvited them to the dance. But that he is in hospital,He would go abroad for hissummer vacation. 要不是生病住院,他就出国度暑假了。 该句可改写为:If he wereint in hospital,he would go abroadfor his summer vacatiom. f) "Ifonly..."这是一种特殊句式结构
用于感叹句中,是一个保留条件句 省略了主句的形式。 一、"If only..."用于感叹句中 是一个保留条件句 省略了主句的形式。用来表示某人对某事的一种强烈愿望或未实现的 用于感叹句中 是一个保留条件句,省略了主句的形式
条件,其意为"但愿……;真希望……;要是……就好了"。常用于虚拟语气的谓语动词形式。 Ifonlysheweremysister!如果她是我姐姐该多好啊! (=Howfineitwouldbeifsheweremysister!) "Ifonly..."引导的从句谓语动词形式分以下几种:

  1. If only 后常接一般过去时 表示对现在的一种难以实现的愿望。 后常接一般过去时,表示对现在的一种难以实现的愿望 表示对现在的一种难以实现的愿望。
如:
  1)If only I had that book! 我要是有那本书就好了。 =How fine it would be if only I had the book (but I haven't the book).
  2)If only I were younger! 要是我年轻点儿就好了! =How fine it would be if only I were younger! (but I am not younger)
  3)If only my mother were here now! 要是我母亲现在在这儿就好了。 (but she isn't here now)
  4)How fine it would be if only they could find a way to get to the room!他们要是能够找到一条通道进入那个房间该多好啊!

  2. If only 后常接过去完成时 表示过去没有实现的愿望。 后常接过去完成时,表示过去没有实现的愿望 表示过去没有实现的愿望。 如:
  1) If only you had worked with greater care! 你当时干活时要是再认真些就好了! (but you didn't work with greater care)
  2) If only we had arrived in time, we would not have missed the train! 要是我们及时赶到,就不 会误车了。(but we didn't arrive in time)
  3. If only 后常用过去将来时表示将来不大可能实现的愿望。 后常用过去将来时表示将来不大可能实现的愿望。 如:If only she would win!但愿她能赢! 有时也可引导陈述语气的真实条件句,意思为 只要…… 意思为"只要……"。 二、If only 有时也可引导陈述语气的真实条件句 意思为 只要…… 。
Ifonlyitclearsup,we'llgo.只要天一放晴,我们就去。 与此句型容易混淆的还有一种结构"only if...",only 置于 if 前表示强调 if 条件,意为"只要……",用于引导陈述语气的真实条件句。 Onlyifyoustudyhard,youwillpassthetest.只要你努力学习,就会通过考试。 B).宾语从句的虚拟语气 B).宾语从句的虚拟语气 a).wish+宾语从句 与现在/将来事实相反 与过去事实相反 eg. I wish I were a bird flying freely in the sky. I wish you passed the entrance exam. I wish you hadn’t been absent yesterday. b).表示请求,命令,建议的动词后(一坚持(insist),二命令(order,command),三建议(suggest,propose,advise),四要求(demand, require, request,ask) 谓语动词(should)+do eg.我们建议她去看医生。 We suggested that she (should) go to see a doctor. 例外情况:suggestion,insist 后从句中不用虚拟语气的问题. suggest 作为“表明,暗示"时,不用虚拟语气 insist 作为“坚持认为"时,不用虚拟语气 eg.The smile on his face suggested that he succeeded in the task.
2
谓语动词 bewere/ 动词过去式 过去完成式
我们坚持他应该去看医生。(坚持要 sb 做) We insisted that he (should) go to see a doctor. We insisted that old Li was an advanced worker in our company. Jane's pale face suggested that she A.be;should have C).主语从句的虚拟语气 It is important/necessary/strange+that+主+(should) do. Eg. It is necessary that we (should) master a foreign language to find a good job. D).状语从句的虚拟语气 a).方式从句 与现在/将来事实相反 与过去事实相反 谓语动词 bewere/ 动词过去式 谓语动词过去完成式 B.was;have ill and her parents suggested that she a medical examination. C.should be;had D.was;has
eg.她很悲伤仿佛整个世界都背叛了她。 She felt upset and sad as if/as though the whole world had turned against her. b).让步从句 与现在/将来事实相反 与过去事实相反 谓语动词 bewere/ 动词过去式 谓语动词--过去完成式
eg.即使他向我道歉,我也不会原谅他。 Even if/Even though he apologized to me, I wouldn’t pardon him. E).it is (high,about) time+从句的虚拟语气从句应该用虚拟语气,值得注意的是
  1.用过去时态表示虚拟. Or
  2.should + 动词原形,should 不能省.常译为"是(正是). ..的时侯.." . It is (high,about) time for+sth. for sb to do. that +clause(谓语动词 bewere/ 动词用过去时或 should+V) eg.我们该回家了. It is time (that)we went/should go home. 1 He suggested that the meeting A. not be put off.
B. should not C. wouldn’t D. be not her child?
2 What would have happened if you A. hadn’t helped 3 It is strange that he
B. couldn’t help C. wouldn’t help D. didn’t help so.
A. thinks B. think C. thought D. will think 4 If I with her last summer, I with her now.
A. worked…am getting on very well B.had worked…would get on very well C. had worked… would have got on very well D.had worked…will get on very well 5 I wish I my uncle yesterday.
A. met B. have met C. would meet D. had met 6 The old professor gave orders that the experiment A. was finished before
  6.
B. will finish C. be finished D. shall be finished home.
7 It’s high time he A. goes 8
B. went C. will go D. is going to go you succeed and you be healthy.
3
A. May…may B. Wish…wish C. Hope…hope D. Should…may 9 Galileo insisted that the earth A. should move B. move C. moves round the sun. D.A or B to the meeting. D. would have come
10 I was very busy yesterday, otherwise I A. came B. would come C. had come 11 Supposing the weather A. will be B. is C. were D. be 12
bad, where would they go?
your letter, I would have started off two days ago.
A. If I receivedB. Should I receiveC. If I could have received D. Had I received 13 If only I to my parents’ advice!
A. listening B. listen C. am listening D. had listened 14 If it A. should rain next week, the farmers could still have a good harvest. B. could C. would D. might
15 Why didn’t you come to the party yesterday? I , but an unexpected visitor came to see me. D. was going to me the news. D. hadn’t told
A. did B. would C. had 16 I’d rather you A. not tell 17 I
B. not to tell C. didn’t tell
to stay there for one more week, but I changed my mind.
A. would have hoped B. was hoping C. had hoped D. hoped 18 His silence at the meeting suggested that he to your plan.
A. shouldn’t agree B. wouldn’t agree C. hadn’t agreed D. didn’t agree 19 He the job well, but he so careless.
A. hadn’t done, had beenB. could have done, was C. could do, was D. had done, had been 20 Li Ling acted that way as though he A. were B. had been C. should be D. is a foreigner.
Keys: 1-5 AABBD 6-10 CBACD 11-15 CDDAD 16-20 CCDBA
一. 非谓语动词

  1. 非谓语动词的种类 A. 不定式 p.127 被动形式 (not)to be done (not)to have been done a. 不定式的基本特征: 主动形式 一般式 (not)to do 完成式 (not)to have done 进行式 (not)to be doing 完成进行 (not)to have been doing
动词不定式的否定形式是由 not 或 never 加不定式构成。 可以充当: 主语、表语、定语、宾语、状语、补足语。 动词不定式由不定式符号 to 加动词原形构成。
  1、Good-bye , Mr. Wang. I’m pleased you. A. to meet B .meeting C. to have been meeting D. to be met A
  2、Encouragement through praise is the most effective method of getting people their best.
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A. do B. to do C. doing D. done B 动词不定式的被动式 当不定式的逻辑主语是不定式所表示的对象时(或动作的承受者时) ,不定式一般要用被动式。
  1、The ability is very important for any speaker. A. to hear clearly B. to be clearly heard C. to hearing clearly D. to being clearly heard B。
  2、Mr. and Mrs. Smith didn’t expect the house so well. A. to be decorated B. to decorate C. be decorated D. decorating A 动词不定式的复合结构 如需指出不定式动作的发出者时(即逻辑主语时)要在不定式前用 for 加名词(或代词)表示。
  1、It was very difficult me to learn Spanish. A. of B. to C. with D. for D
  2、It is necessary the papers immediately. A. for you to hand in B. that you hand out C. your hand in D. for your hand in A 动词不定式的完成式 表示不定式的动作发生在句子谓语所表示的动作之前。
  1、Judging from his manners at the party, he doesn’t seem much education. A. to receive B. to be receiving C. to have received D. to have been received C
  2、The book is said into several foreign languages up to now. A. to translate B. to have translate C. to have been translated D. to be translated C b.不定式做主语时,谓语动词用单数. To master a foreign language is not an easy thing. 掌握一门外语不是一件容易的事。 在很多情况下,人们通常用 it 作为形式上的主语,而把不定式短语移到谓语之后,使句子显得平稳一些。如: It’s good manners to wait in line. 排队等候是很有礼貌的。 It made us very angry to hear him speak to his mother like that. 听到他那样跟他妈妈说话我们很生气。 c.不定式做宾补的注意事项: 不定式可以和名词或代词一起构成复合结构作动词的宾语,这时不定式被称为宾语补足语。如: I would like you to help me with my English exercises.
 

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